The uses for Deep Cryogenic Treatment in the automotive field are innumerable. This has been proven time and again both in the racing industry and on fleet vehicles. OUR Cryogenic Processing excels at increasing fatigue life of components and textbooks say over 80% of mechanical failures are caused by fatigue failure. For instance, we have increased the life of valve springs to SEVEN times (that’s a 700% increase) their normal life. This means that components that fail by breaking will perform longer or will endure increased stress created by racing or other activities. Another major form of wear is friction. Components that wear by friction will also show considerable life increases when Cryogenically treated by US. A major example is brake rotors. Laboratory tests initiated by the US Postal Service that we were a part of showed that treated rotors lasted over five times longer than the best-untreated rotors. Further benefits are seen due to the stability Deep Cryogenic Treatment induces. When not treated, a component when used can change in size and dimension. These changes are due to heat, vibration, and simply age. These factors induce the release of residual stresses and changes to the crystal structure, which in turn can create warping and size change. Good examples of this are the warping of brake rotors, the distortion of pistons with use and the warping of engine blocks in use.
Virtually any part of an engine, transmission, or drive train can benefit from Our Cryogenic Processing.
CRYOGENIC PROCESSING AND RACING
Whether you race cars, boats, or airplanes cryogenic processing can reduce the cost of your racing and help make sure you are running at the end of the race. Racing engines, transmissions, drive lines, suspension springs and more respond to cryogenic processing by improving performance, reliability, and durability. If you want to race for less money, you need to use cryogenic processing. Over 50% of the Sprint Cup racing teams do, and now many racing parts manufacturers are using Controlled Thermal Processing, Inc. to not only cryogenically treat their products, but to help them optimize the metallurgy of their parts.
Cryogenic processing is unique in that it reduces the cost of racing and makes the car more competitive at the same time. Many parts of the car respond to cryogenic processing. Cryogenic processing has been proven and continues to be proven race after race. Cryogenic processing allows a race team to win consistently, which is the key to winning championships.
Cryogenic processing has proven applications in every form of automotive, aircraft, and boat racing. Virtually any part that is stressed or worn during a race can benefit from cryogenic processing.
One definite area where cryogenics excels is that it reduces residual stress. Why is this important? We’ve found that many parts harbor residual stresses that are relieved with the heat and vibration of extreme use. This means that they change size and shape in the engine. By cryogenic processing relieves these stresses, preventing the changes. As a good example, one drag racing team was blowing head gaskets. They found that the cylinder head was warping up.
Racing improves the breed. We’ve applied what we learned about racing brakes to road vehicles, and now offer brake rotors and pads to qualified fleets. Use of cryogenically treated brakes can save hundreds of dollars per vehicle per year.
The United States Postal Service sponsored extensive testing to determine what the best brakes were for its fleet. Our Brake brand brakes were judged to be the best of all rotors tested.
The second place brake showed seven times the wear.
Fleets such as the US Postal Service have considerably reduced operating costs by using cryogenically treated brakes.
We’ve had treated and untreated brakes tested by Greening Testing Laboratories and Link Laboratories according to SAE 2707 JUL 2004 METHOD B, both independent testing labs that are well known for their work with brakes. They found that brake rotors and pads lasted significantly longer after cryogenic treatment, with no significant change in braking effectiveness. In some cases treated brakes have lasted fo ur times longer than untreated ones.
Another test performed by Link Labs for us involved two rotors that were cycled according to SAE 2707 JUL 2004 METHOD B until the untreated rotor was worn beyond its service limit. The treated rotor was then put through the same cycles. It finished the test with 0.039″ less wear on the treated rotor
Why would you send your Vehicle out with inferior untreated rotors?
Brakes and the Environment
THIS IS NOT GREEN
The simple recycling of brake rotors is not the best strategy for the environment…
Cryo Processed Rotors Are.
Here is the energy budget life cycle of one treated rotor versus its equivalent untreated.
*Does not include transportation and machining.
There are three strategies for dealing with used brake rotors.
• Send them to the landfill
• Send them to be recycled
• Use cryogenically treated rotors, then send them to be recycled.
Obviously sending rotors to a landfill is not environmentally friendly. Rotors are made of cast iron, which is easily recycled. The mining and smelting of iron ore is energy intensive. So it is environmentally friendly to send used brake rotors for recycling. But recycling them results in the use of energy and can cause pollution. There is a more environmentally friendly option. Cryogenically treating rotors results in getting three or more times the use of the rotor before it has to be recycled. Let’s take a look at the environmental results:
To recycle a rotor, it is melted. A common rotor for a full size car weighs about 24 pounds.
They just don’t melt a rotor, you melt a whole bunch of scrap metal, usually in a device called a copula.
The energy use of a copula works out to about 800 kilo watt hours/metric tonne.
If you do the math, this works out to about 9 Kilo Watt hours/24 pound rotor, which works out to about 31,000 BTU’s per rotor.
But there’s more…….
• Gates, runners and risers in the mold require about 50% more metal than what is just in the brake rotor= BTU’s for the casting 46,500.
• Melting Metal: a percentage is lost due to reacting with the atmosphere and creating dross or iron oxide. This is about 7%. So this represents another 3,255 BTU’s that are used to heat enough metal to replace the lost metal.
• To re-cast a brake rotor involves about 49,755 BTU’s of energy used, not counting what it takes to get it to the recycling plant nor the energy used to machine the resulting casting.
Let’s look at what happens when you cryogenically treat a rotor:
It takes about 8.2 liters of liquid nitrogen to process a rotor in our medium size machine.
Air Liquide tells us that to make that amount of liquid nitrogen would take about 2460 BTU.
The heating cycle in the machine also takes about 1000 BTU Electrical usage per rotor in the machine, for 3460 BTU.
The treated rotor will last about three times the life of the untreated rotor.
NOTE: The nitrogen used does not pollute the atmosphere. It was taken from the atmosphere in the air separation process used to liquefy it, so it is just being released back from where it came. The atmosphere is about 79% nitrogen to begin with.
Reduced Heavy Metal Pollution
Another advantage is that brake pads tend to last two times as long on treated rotor. Brake pads contain copper which is worn off them and deposited along the road way where it makes its way into the sewer systems and into rivers. Copper pollution is a major problem, especially along the coast lines where it does considerable damage to water life. We can cut this pollution source considerably.
MINING TRUCK BRAKES
A major mining company in Australia tested treated brake rotors vs. untreated rotors with dramatic results. Due to this test they are now tooling up to equip all of their trucks with treated brakes.
A client of our Australian associates recently revealed an issue with the excessive wear and cracking on the service brake rotors and brake pads on the 730E Komatsu trucks in their fleet. The brakes on these 2000 horsepower trucks have a gross weight of 715,000 pounds to stop from speeds up to 35 mph.
Each side on the front has a 46 inch diameter rotor operated by three calipers. Each side on the rear has two 25 inch rotors driven at armature speed. Each rear rotor has one caliper.
In an attempt to solve the problem, treated Komatsu brake rotors were installed to the left hand side of one of their trucks in service. The right hand side was fitted with standard untreated Komatsu rotors to act as a control.
After one month they were inspected and it was found that the treated rotor had no cracks and the untreated one had severe cracking to the braking surface. Also, at this time the pads on the treated rotor had worn 1.5mm as opposed to 7mm on the pads on the untreated rotor. The untreated rotors were replaced.
The next inspection recorded was at 5 months. At this stage the treated rotor was still on and had developed some cracking but these were quite minor in size compared to the untreated side. The right hand side had already had its second rotor fitted which was now cracked far more severely than our original one.
Untreated Rotor After 2 Months of Use! Treated Rotor After 5 Months of Use!
Quoted from the mining company’s report, “It is obvious to date that the treated rotor will outlast at least 3 conventional rotors and in fact will be monitored weekly just to see how far it will go before it needs to be discarded. The deep and open cracking of the conventional rotor in such a short time will affect the pad wear quite considerably give the speed at which these rotors rotate in service which in this instance is 27:1 compared to the tire rotation.”
Crown Wheel Testimonial
CAT Scraper Differential Single Tooth Crown Wheel Failures.
For the last fifteen years we have operated fleets of 637 and 657 Caterpillar scrapers, regardless of which model machine is in use we have suffered a high incidence of single tooth crown wheel failure predominantly in rear diffs but not limited only to rear differentials.
During this time we did not experience a pinion gear tooth failure the tooth failures were concentrated 100% to crown wheel failure.
Two years ago two differentials were treated differently with the CAT crown wheels being refinished and then treated to increase strength and special attention paid to fitting during the diff rebuilds.
In early October 2012 one of these diffs failed, inspection found the primary failure was operator induced diff lock failure. All of the lugs were broken off one half of the diff lock, this metal made its way through the diff centre into the gear housing doing much damage in its passing.
The pinion gear suffered significant damage with sections of gear teeth breaking away, the sections of broken pinion gear as well as the lugs from the diff lock were ground to a paste as they passed through the gears with only one lug remaining when the diff was stripped.
The crown wheel that had previously been prone to losing teeth prematurely had not lost a tooth yet there was evidence that much of the metal had passed through the gear with evidence of metal bruising and deformation in the root of the gear without causing failure.
Previously the treatment of the diff was limited to theory however this is hard evidence that treating the gear significantly strengthened the component and had the diff lock not failed would most likely have continued to give good service.
The Real World…
Below are three articles we have compiled. The 80,000-mile rotor is off of one of our current fleet customers. The Racer’s edge article was written by our own Rick Diekman and Roger Schiradely. None other than the late Joe Mondello writes the third article. We didn’t know until recently that he was Cryogenically treating motors. We don’t agree with his assertion about shaking tables being a replacement to Cryo as Cryo is much more thorough in achieving the results Joe was treating for.